Colorado Rights Blog

ACLU Blog of Rights By: ACLU Blog of Rights 5.28.2014

Supreme Court: An IQ Point or Two Shouldn’t Determine Who Lives and Who Dies

(From the ACLU Blog of Rights)

By Cassandra Stubbs, ACLU Capital Punishment Project

IQ tests are intrinsically imprecise. On one, Freddie Lee Hall scored 71. On other tests, he’s gotten various scores between 60 and 75.

The problem for Mr. Hall is that until today, scoring over 70 on even one IQ test gave Florida the green light to execute him. That one time score of 71 put Mr. Hall just over the line in the sand drawn by the state’s legislature, after the 2002 Supreme Court decision finding that it violates the Eighth Amendment to kill people who are mentally disabled.

No one seems to dispute what the Florida Supreme Court wrote 15 years ago, that “there is no doubt that [Mr. Hall] has serious mental difficulties, is probably somewhat retarded, and certainly has learning difficulties and a speech impediment.”

And that’s exactly the point – even if someone meets the other criteria for mental disability, Florida was clinging to an unscientific and outmoded cut-off number of 70 and using this erroneous indicator to draw a line between those killed and those sent to prison for life.

This has happened often, not just to Mr. Hall.

One group of scholars determined that half of the defendants who lost mental disability challenges to their death sentences in Florida had lost because of the strict 70 IQ cut-off score. And a large minority of states also adopted schemes under which the difference of one or two IQ points demarcated who could be killed and who could not.

Now these states have to change their dubious and dangerous ways of determining mental disability, thanks to yesterday’s Supreme Court decision favoring science over arbitrariness.

The strict IQ cut-off rests on the fiction that a score, whether it is 70 or 71, is the precise value of the person’s intellectual functioning. Psychiatrists and mental health professionals are crystal clear: an IQ score is an approximation, and because of a host of factors that score must be understood within a standard error of measurement, most commonly understood as a range of plus and minus five points. In other words, we can be relatively confident that a defendant whose IQ score is reported as 71 has a true IQ between 66 and 76, not that his or her score was exactly 71.

The professional community of psychiatrists is unanimous that a strict 70 IQ cut-off score will erroneously exclude individuals who qualify as intellectually disabled. Given this “inherent imprecision,” in the words of Justice Anthony Kennedy, it is no longer constitutional to use the IQ cut-off method to determine who will live and who will die. In rejecting Florida’s cut-off score of 70, the Court stressed repeatedly the importance of consistency with the definitions of intellectual disability adopted and understood by the “medical community” and “medical experts.”

In the battle between expediency and science, this is a clear win for science.

While the Supreme Court’s ruling today comes too late for the unknown number of intellectually disabled death row inmates who already have been executed under strict cut-off schemes, it takes a large step towards ensuring that the death penalty is not used against people with intellectual disabilities, in Florida and beyond.



  • Cedric Watkins is a father, uncle, entrepreneur-in-training, and a vital community pillar for many others. While behind bars, he has tirelessly devoted himself to serving his peers and his community. He developed gang disaffiliation programs for other incarcerated individuals and is currently involved with Defy Ventures. He sends letters and calls his daughter as much as he can.

    Cedric is currently in prison at Sterling Correctional Facility. He was convicted of aggravated robbery, burglary, kidnapping, theft and sentenced to 80 years; no one was seriously injured or killed. For comparison, a person convicted of second-degree murder in Colorado faces a maximum sentence of 48 years. Cedric has already served 20 years and has fully rehabilitated during that time.

    It’s time to bring Cedric home: Redemption is real. Clemency is compassion.

  • On November 21, 2016, 13 Aurora police officers responded to a simple noise complaint at Alberto Torres’s home. As happens all too often, Aurora police officers escalated this minor issue into a brutal affair. They beat Mr. Torres solely because he delayed exiting his garage to ask his wife to interpret for him. With that beating, the lives of Mr. Torres and every member of his family were changed and he has yet to recover. ACLU of Colorado fought to obtain justice for Mr. Torres, and Aurora has now paid him $285,000. But money is not justice, and the brutality of the Aurora Police Department against people of color has continued unabated.

    It doesn’t have to be this way.

    Imagine, if instead of 13 officers being dispatched to Mr. Torres’s home for a noise complaint, the City of Aurora sent a civilian-led response team to check on his welfare and ask that he and his friends lower their sound, resulting in a non-violent solution to a minor issue?

    ACLU Settles Case With Aurora After Police Brutalize and Unlawfully Arrest Alberto Torres

  • Hope is a discipline. It’s a commitment that together, we can create a more perfect union. We won’t rest until we fulfill the promise of equal rights for ALL people in the United States.

    Join us in our fight to fulfill this promise and move forward with hope by donating to the ACLU of Colorado. Your donation supports the ACLU’s strengths that make our work effective and collaborative.

    Donate now at

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    In the midst of this public health crisis, incarcerated people as vulnerable as Anthony, could and should be immediately released to safely live out their remaining years with family.

    Read more about Anthony Martinez and other at-risk incarcerated people.